What do I have to think about , as well as an overview article on types of variables , which will help to familiarise you with terms such as dependent and independent variable , as well as categorical and continuous variables [see the article: In this study dissertation, research I Each of these steps is discussed in turn: You can also use a table to illustrate the hypotheses , the constructs they represent, and the directionality of the hypotheses see Table B below:. If you are performing a piece of descriptive , quantitative research for your dissertation, you are likely to need to set quite a number of descriptive research questions. This type of design aims to answer questions such as: However, constructs need to be expressed i.

In order to select a sample n of students from this population of 10, students, we could choose to use quota sampling , convenience sampling , purposive sampling , self-selection sampling and snowball sampling:. Ideally, you will have included these categories or levels based on some primary or secondary research. How many calories do American men and women consume per day? What this means and how to do it is explained in our enhanced moderator analysis guide. This is because they view gender as having a number of categories, including male, female, bisexual and transsexual.

Name of the dependent variable How the dependent variable is written out Daily calorific intake How many calories do American men and women consume per day? Some of these starting phrases are highlighted in blue text in the examples below:. For example, take gender.

Some of these starting phrases are highlighted in blue text in the examples below:. When myths masquerade as science. The examples above highlight a desire to capture what we mean about something through the use of just a few words often only one or two words. But social scientists would argue that gender is a more complex construct, including additional laaerd to just male and female ; perhaps including bisexualhomosexualtranssexualand so forth.


The table below provides some examples of these different types of constructs: Internal validity As a concept, internal validity is important because we want to be able to say that the conclusions we made in our dissertation accurately reflect what we were studying.

Take the following examples:. Physical working conditions Group: You need to do this for two main reasons: What is the relationship between study time cissertation exam scores amongst university students?

Step 2: Research design for your dissertation | Lærd Dissertation

Sometimes the name of the dependent variable provides all the explanation we need to know what we are trying to measure. Rather than there being just a few of these variablfs variables, there are likely to be hundreds or even thousands.

Financial performance, corporate social responsibility, firm survival, organisational culture, service quality, corporate governance, outsourcing, alliances. However, some constructs e.

Moderator Analysis with a Dichotomous Moderator using SPSS Statistics

Expressing the meaning of constructs using theoretical or nominal definitions Translating constructs into operational definitions. For example, if we were interested in investigating the relationship between gender and attitudes towards music piracy amongst adolescentsthe independent variable would be gender and the dependent variable attitudes towards music piracy.

Translating abstract concepts e. When myths masquerade as science. Threats to internal validity ].

laerd dissertation variables

In this article, we a explain what internal validity is, and b discuss and provide examples of the various threats to internal validity. How often do British university students use Facebook each week?


FOURTH Decide whether the dependent variable or group s should be included first, last or in two parts Sometimes it makes more sense for the laedr variable to appear before the group s you are interested in, but sometimes it is the opposite way around. This leads us to a discussion of when extraneous variables become confounding variableswhere they offer an alternative explanation for changes in scores on the dependent variable, reducing the internal validity of your results.

Each of these types of dissertattion research question is discussed in turn: Before we explain the relationship between extraneous variables and confounding variableslet’s look at some examples of extraneous variables: Fissertation to internal validity Dissertations can suffer from a wide range of potential threats to internal validitywhich have been discussed extensively in the literature e. For example, we could relate age to how frequently the students used Facebook each week.

We could compare some of these factors i. Definitions are verbatim from Oxford Dictionaries www.

laerd dissertation variables

All descriptive research questions have a dependent variable. Whilst there are many such extraneous variables, we have given some examples below: Euthanasia “The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma” Oxford Dictionaries, Therefore, constructs need to be translated from the abstract i.